Psoriasis is a skin disorder than can occur at any age in both men and women. Most commonly, psoriasis first appears as thick, flaky patches of skin on the elbows, knees, or other parts of the body. The patches may be silver or red.
In some cases, psoriasis is so mild that people don’t know they have it. At the opposite extreme, severe psoriasis may cover large areas of the body. Psoriasis cannot be passed from one person to another, though it is more likely to occur in people whose family members have it.
The underlying psoriasis cause is unknown. However, it can be genetically inherited or passed from generation to generation. Most researchers agree that the immune system is somehow mistakenly triggered, which speeds up the growth cycle of skin cells. A normal skin cell matures and falls off the body’s surface in 28 to 30 days. But a psoriatic skin cell takes only three to four days to mature and move to the surface. Instead of falling off (shedding), the cells pile up and form the lesions. Possible triggers include: Stress, injury, illness, infection, steroids, and reaction to medications. Psoriasis is not an infection and it is not contagious.
Dry, red patches of skin are the most well-known symptoms of psoriasis. The skin replaces itself more quickly than normal, causing excess skin cells to pile up in thick layers. Roughly half of people with psoriasis also have irregular fingernail growth that results in pitting, crumbling, or discoloration of the nail. A smaller proportion of people also experience arthritis symptoms.
Because psoriasis is a chronic condition that can progress over time, it is important to get an accurate diagnosis and to understand the challenges and risks that accompany the disease.
There are a range of treatment options for psoriasis including topical (applied to the skin), systemic (taken internally) and phototherapy (ultraviolet light applied to the skin).
Effective treatment of all but mild to moderate forms of psoriasis usually includes a combination of treatment options and requires a prescription and medical guidance.
The treatment of psoriasis has improved greatly with the understanding of the role of the immune system in causing skin abnormalities. However, treatment of psoriasis has been limited by the side-effects of the medications used.
The most commonly used medications such as topical steroids, methotrexate, cyclosporine, and psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) can only be used for a limited time. After stopping these medications, symptoms generally return over a variable amount of time. Amevive is unique in that it was well-tolerated in clinical trials and induced a remission of symptoms for up to 1 year after the treatment was discontinued.
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This post was written by NCFP_Assistant on March 24, 2012
Limewire is one of popular area to get exactly what you need. And this step by step guide will coach you how to download and Limewire free songs and videos on iPod iPhone.
Part1. Ways to put Limewire songs on iPod
Step1. It is advisable to download and install Limewire at the beginning. ( Here is the limewire download link ). We use the Basic version as example during this guide. Then run the Limewire. Input a keyword (just like Michael Jackson) while in the search bar, after which it wait moments, Limewire will return loads of michael jackson related download link results.
Step2. Go through the download link, then Limewire starts the downloading process. (Tips: higher number will lead faster download speed). If the download process fully gone, Limewire will automatically add the downloaded songs within the iTunes library (when you’ve got installed iTunes), then you could plug in your iPod or iPhone to computer and sync it with iTunes, done.
In case the Limewire song doesn’t load within the iTunes automatically, you possibly can click Tools -> Choices to open the panel, click “Configure” and set being follow:
Part2. Ways to put Limewire videos on ipod
Step1. Download video matches audio. Say hello to the keyword (just like twilight), Pay a visit to “video” categories, look for the file you choose, click the link to get started to download it.
Step2. Once the download process was finished, located the limewire video file on your hard disk, limewire default save folder is “C:Documents and SettingsAdministratorMy DocumentsLimeWireSaved”.
ipod both support only MP4 video, but if your download file is definitely mp4 video, you possibly can drag it into iTunes library and sync it to the iPod or iPhone directly.
But a majority Limewire video files are MPEG or AVI. This can be used Limewire Video Converter to transform them to iPod compatible MP4 video. Incredibly more many video converters, this one is best suited for with Limewire video. It’s best with Windows 7 and 64 bits system. Discover more information about it by mentioning this review . Drag flick into the limewire video converter, set the profile to “iPod Video MPEG-4(*.mp4)”, click set out to begin the conversion.
You will need a few minutes to conclude the conversion. Then drags the converted MP4 video within the iTunes library and sync the Limewire video to the iPod or iPhone, this video converter build-in a mp3 player transfer. To generate videos to upload Limewire songs or videos to iPod if you can not want to use iTunes. That’s all. Enjoy my guide on putting Limewire songs and videos on iPod, Merry Christmas.
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This post was written by NCFP_Assistant on November 29, 2011
Due to all the marketing for eczema remedies, it’s likely that you comprehend something about eczema. But you may not know that there are several varieties. All over the population, there are millions who have been found to have this ailment. Without some knowledge of the characteristics, you’re unlikely to be able to remedy the condition properly. You will find there are varying levels of severity with eczema, and that is also a aspect with treating it. Do you suspect that you’ve contracted eczema? In that case, there are a number of courses of action open to you. Your family doctor will give you a steadfast diagnosis, but you could also talk to a pharmacist about non-presecription remedies. You might yet be referred to a skin doctor. Who knows how many people are influenced by xlpharmacy because it has the power to produce such an effect. We see so many examples in our every day lives, and it can serve as an important reminder. When you start reading more, you will understand all that is concerned and it could surprise you. Everybody has a sensible idea about what is possible with it. However, you and many others nevertheless would like to be more informed on this matter. We hope to broaden your knowledge base of xlpharmacy, and in so doing make it possible for you to be more informed.
Contact eczema, or dermatitis, is one of the easiest to identify and treat, even though it is not the most universal. “Irritant eczema” in addition to “allergic eczema” are the two determined varieties of contact dermatitis. The names are pretty self explanatory, however we will chat about them for clarity. Irritation eczema is simply when something comes in contact with your skin, a form of chemical for example, and it produces an eczema type of rash. This might be from soaps, perfumes or everyday cleansing agents. Substances that may set off allergic eczema, which appears about the same, are things like dust mites, pet hair or dander, and spores or pollens. This may be a cause for worry but with good medicines it is easy to get cured. Just have a peep into xlpharmacy .
Observed mostly in children less than five years old, atopic eczema is the most common type of the condition. An scratchy, dry rash is the principal affliction. Little children obviously tend to scratch the irritation and aggravate the condition. The affected area may swell depending on the condition. To find out the top treatment alternatives and the accurate diagnosis of the affliction, the child ought to be seen by a pediatrician. We have included a few basic things about xlpharmacy, and they are essential to consider in your research. But there is so much more that you would do well to study. We believe you will find them to be very helpful in a lot of ways. Do consider the time and make the attempt to discover the big picture of this. We are not done, and there are just a couple of very strong suggestions and tips for you.
Adult folks may sometimes encounter varicose eczema. The manifestation of this disorder can include patches of skin that are dark in color with itching, puffiness or a redness. The foremost root is that blood circulation in the lower extremities is not good. That sort of poor circulation causes fluid to accumulate in the legs. This can lead to varicose veins, or thrombosis. Other names for this sort of eczema are gravitational as well as static eczema. In the most horrible cases there could be severe swelling and skin ulcers. I write on a range of health topics. Please check out my blogs by going to securetabs .
Keep a close eye on your skin condition, as eczema can manifest in many different ways. Signs such as the location and the type are very important. If you are unsure about what it going on with your skin, and suspect eczema, then of course the best thing is to visit your family medical doctor right away. The symptoms of the distinctive types of eczema can vary broadly in terms of severity. Your health-care professional or physician is the one who can give you a correct verdict and prescribe the right treatment. The details in this article really only presents a small fraction of all there is to know about xlpharmacy. There are other areas that can be learned that will enhance the information that is generally available. That is what can be found when you keep on reading and see the kind of knowledge we are talking about. We know you will gain deeper insights into your own needs and be able to see some benefits.
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This post was written by admin on August 2, 2011
Eczema can be very discomforting to someone who is suffering from this condition and those that have already experienced it can give a testament to this. To those who haven’t then it’s really itchy. There are actually a lot of products that are being offered in the drug store and in the groceries that help in alleviating the condition. Natural treatments options are also available. Actually there are a lot of different treatment options available. In this article let’s have a look at the different natural treatment options available. Source: Eczema on Face
One method in treating eczema naturally is to always make your skin moisturized. This way your skin will not have any flare-ups and minimize the itchy feel. Moisturizing your skin at least twice a day, once in the morning and once in the evening will make your skin moisturized and supple.
Emollients are also known to effectively treat eczema. This can come in different forms like oil, lotion, and creams. Make sure that you look for one that you are comfortable with. You can also buy two and use it interchangeably. During the summer you can place it in the refrigerator to have a more cooling effect on the skin.
You can also try an oatmeal bath. There are ready-made products available for this in the grocery. Rolled oats can also be used. Fill your tub with luke war water, add the oatmeal and just soak on it. Make sure that you apply moisturizer to keep your skin moisturized.
Another method is to mix one teaspoon of comfrey root, slippery elm bark, and white bark into a bowl with two cups of water. Just boil the mixture for around 30 minutes and allow it to cool. This mixture is used to wash the skin. Though this can’t totally cure eczema it can still help relieve the itch.
Blueberry leaves are also known to be good for eczema. This can help in relieving the inflammation and itchiness. Vitamin E is also a good option and can be applied into the affected area with its cream form. Vitamin E supplements can also be taken. More articles at Eczema in Babies
There are still a lot of other options in treating eczema that anyone can try. But before doing anything it is best to consult with a doctor first.
To learn more about Eczema as well as various approaches to treat it, please visit Eczema in Babies
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This post was written by admin on August 2, 2011
Damaged nails. Just like your skin, nails may find it hard to preserve moisture as we age. Dehydration is frequently exacerbated by those harsh soaps that we tend to use many times on any day. Several are known for alcohol content which will pull moisture out of the body, too. When you add nail polish, cosmetically, you are helping produce fragile nails.
Thinning hair. Much of the time this is down to hereditary factors or variations in the body’s hormones, however it may also be as a result of an imbalance of necessary elements within your diet, especially iron. For this reason you should try to find multi-vitamins which are rich in amino acids and specifically in B vitamins, plus a healthy, all around diet.
Yellowing teeth. The teeth are an additional telling sign of how old you are and if you do not look after them each day by brushing regularly, flossing each day and going to see your dentist frequently you may be in trouble. It is possible to whiten your teeth certainly, however you cannot easily hide receding gum lines and mostly unhealthy teeth.
Sagging skin. It’s not just sagging either, it is all those crow’s feet, dark circles, bags and wrinkles. These can be a few of the worst telling signs of aging, but here you have to try to find skincare solutions that are of the finest quality. The truth is, your skin is enduring a breakdown in the essential elastin and collagen proteins as well as an inability to maintain its tone, suppleness and elasticity.
There are a number of different aging signs that can be addressed specifically, but in general don’t forget that you have to conduct yourself properly every day and make wholesale lifestyle changes if needed.
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This post was written by NCFP_Assistant on July 4, 2011
All those sunburns you might have suffered when next to the pool or lying on the beach brought about damage to skin cells in the dermis, a layer of your skin under the surface. As damage within the skin cells is going to be apparent as you become older, whenever your skin cell restoration begins to slow as we grow older the creation of melanin is going to be impacted. Specific skin cells will consequently have a unique appearance and therefore this leads to those darkened patches, which we all know now as age spots.
Keep in mind that we said lifestyle has a lot to do with it and you have to balance everything out. Decrease any alcohol intake as this can dry up the skin which is never recommended and if you smoke, do whatever you can to quit.
Consider your diet plan. Make sure that it’s high in fruits and vegetables and low in unhealthy fats. Focus on omega-3 fatty acids which you usually see in fatty fish, or make certain you have a supplement to make up the shortfall.
Skincare products that you pick out today are very important. You’ll need plenty of antioxidants inside to help battle the free radicals and really should select products that are manufactured from natural ingredients. Keep in mind the very last thing you’ll want to do is to add unnecessary chemicals onto your skin and those mineral oils can only seek to dry up the skin further.
A good whitening product is an acceptable age spot reducer, but support it with basic day and night creams and moisturizers that are all dependent upon 100% natural ingredients plus a solid understanding of what it takes to maintain, as well as fix the skin.
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This post was written by NCFP_Assistant on June 29, 2011
If you are among the many millions that suffer via arthritis and joint pain, there is certainly aid. Unluckily there is no cure concerning arthritis, nevertheless there are a number of arthritis remedies that will help you manage the discomfort.
Arthritis remedies lets you relax one’s own arthritis problems in addition to joint discomfort. There are a mixture of products alongside medications. Lots of people worry or perhaps don’t need to use numerous drugs every day. Do not worry, you don t have to. Your medical professional will come up with an outline that doesn’t contain drugs, contingent on how intense one’s arthritis and joint soreness has become.
Firstly you need to do nonetheless is work out just how severe your arthritis as well as joint ache has become. Does it strike everyday making your routine difficult? Or does it flair up sometimes? Whenever you clarify this, you can discover the arthritis remedies or medications that may aid yourself by far the most in handling your specific arthritis plus joint pain.
Task will likely not cure arthritis however it can help to keep your joints strong plus decrease some soreness. Unless you have enough confidence or even believe that you will not handle a typical exercise program then you definitely should go to your health care provider. They may well refer you to a physical therapist that may provide you with a substitute exercise program that’s not overly hard together with something you might use well with your joint ache plus arthritis. Try making a search regarding natural arthritis remedies. You ll be surprised with just how many products you will find that will help you cope with your specific arthritis and joint discomfort, by natural means. All-natural arthritis remedies will cost you a smaller amount than medications and are also always available if you want them. You do not need to wait for a medication to generally be loaded at the drug store of course if you happen to be on a little budget these are inexpensive. You may also attempt yoga or even Chi kung workouts. These are considered fantastic arthritis remedies since they are never strenuous, yet still they retain your joints secure.
The easiest way to handle your arthritic plus joint discomfort is usually to completely comprehend it. Find out the explanations why it appears to be, what’s going on while using the joints and muscular tissues and what you are able to do to tackle the suffering.
There are lots of books on the net and in book stores. Perform a little research and find essentially the most complete versions. Some of them will offer information and the way to deal with your potential arthritis plus joint soreness. They are going to provide you with the finest arthritis remedies that performed for them and that actually are on the market today. Be certain to talk about the things you come across along with your medical professional. They can make it easier to put a approach together, one that will definitely deliver the results ï»¿and easeï»¿ your pain.
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This post was written by assistant on June 12, 2011
Help for arthritis can be obtained and if you have suffered from arthritis for any length of time you’ll be familiar with the next prescription medications: Vioxx, Celebrex, and Bextra. These are generally prescribed by medical professionals to reduce joint disease conditions but additionally come with a risk. These prescription drugs have shown to increase the sufferers risk with regard to cardiac arrest and improve blood pressure level. As with any prescription you should consider the potential risks as well as talk about potential unwanted effects with your physician. Your health background as well as family history are important to consider whenever taking any prescription medication. In the finish it’s up to you to determine what level of risk you’re willing to take. This particular predicament puts most sufferers inside a capture Twenty two scenario. Without the actual medicine their own way of life suffers with it they are at risk of additional health problems.
NSAIDs taken in reduced dosages will assist you to lower your discomfort level however greater dosages have to reduce the inflammation that commonly happens. The side effects of NSAIDS reduce your bloods capability to clog correctly so if you take bloodstream loss medicines this may not be a choice. As well, they’ve been linked to kidney disease and sometimes trigger severe heartburn.
Help for arthritis Alternatives
Therefore, the other options do you have to build your existence manageable and that will allow you to function normally even though you suffer from joint disease? Let us take a look at a few options to prescription drugs. You ought to know that these types of options can be combined with medicines, but they’re informed to see your physician before you start.
Physical exercise has been shown to improve the muscle mass strength of the joints which relieves the pain of joint disease. Water being active is particularly goo because the water requires the pressure from the important joints letting it end up being much less unpleasant. Walking is another good alternative. Of course increased pain is really a sign to prevent your work and consult with your physician.
Relaxation, which might appear detrimental can also be essential. You need to let your entire body the correct time for you to recuperate and recover. It is essential to not over do it as well as take your time.
Excess weight place much more stress in your important joints, particularly your back again, knees as well as sides. So, it’s a given that slimming down will give you help for arthritis. This can be really beneficial to arthritis sufferers.
If you getting recurring pain, hot and cold packs will help to increase the blood circulation towards the area particularly post exercise.
Help for arthritis Conclusion
It is important is that you simply suffer from arthritis in order to consider all you options, take a look at your current health and be proactive to locate help for arthritis.
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This post was written by assistant on May 30, 2011
The present article is relaed to the observation made by the author in his two and half decades of clinical practice on the cure of the divergent inflammatory diseases such as Asthma, Arthritis, Tuberculosis, etc. by administering a single molecule/ medicine. Extensive literature and patent search could not present any scientific explanation for the phenomenon observed and reported. Preliminary research at the author’s clinic and lab has enabled the postulation and confirmation of a novel theory and immune pathway involving Histamine haemostasis referred to as the Rao’s Vicious Cycle. In this study the medicine used belongs to the category of allergies, a new mechanism is proposed for the action of mediators during the inflammation. It has been postulated that the histamine liberated from the mast cells is the key link among the divergent diseases. During inflammation, histamine is released at the inflammatory sites as predicted by Rao’s vicious cycle. The later refers to the proliferation of TH2 type of reaction and its dominance over TH1 reaction. In this method of cure known as Appa Hista, antihistamine antibodies, combat the histamine at the inflammatory sites and also block TH2 type of reaction, thus indirectly helping the TH1 type of reaction. The dual effect of Appa hista antibodies has been visualized in 1) Killing the intracellular organisms through TH1 type of reaction and; 2) Neutralizing the histamine at inflammation site at the same time blocking the excess TH2 type of reaction. Since Appa Hista directly attacks histamine where ever it is present, it may cure all inflammatory diseases.
The present investigation deals with the cure of some of the most stubborn problems such as paralytic stroke, arthritis, tuberculosis etc., by using histamine conjugated normal human immunoglobulin. Histamine is a chemical mediator and also the prime mediator of inflammation. It is a vasoactive amine, found long back and established as a chemical mediator of inflammation. This compound is essential for vascular permeability and allows the vessels to leak the protein rich exudate and cells to the site of inflammation. The latter is divided into two groups: 1) Acute inflammation and 2) Chronic inflammation. While chronic inflammation may originate as chronic itself, an acute inflammation, may, over a period of time become chronic. The inflammatory response is closely coupled with the process of healing or repair. A foreign body (agent) always wants to destroy the host tissue for its settlement, while, the host always tries to get rid of the agent as it is foreign. Thus, inflammation can be considered as a protective response of the host and serves to destroy, dilute or wall off the injurious agents, and, also as far as possible heal and reconstitute the tissues.
Normally, inflammation is an immunological (protective) phenomenon and, pain is a protective signal to get rid of the stimuli (causes). At times they become pathological and produce disease.1 Repair begins during the early phases of inflammation but reaches completion usually after the injurious influence has been neutralized. During repair the injured tissue is replaced by parenchymal (functional) cells or by filling of the defect with fibroblastic tissue (scarring) or most commonly by a combination of these two processes. The defense mechanism is such that the system tries itself best to give protection by innate immunity. Alternately, if the agent is a stronger one, then only the acquired immunity is triggered either by humoral immunity (present in body fluids) or by cell mediated immunity or by both. The humoral/cell mediated immunity is offered by several preformed or existing proteins like compliment and antibodies, or, by cells like macrophages, lymphocytes and neutrophils. When an agent initiates an injury, the defense mechanism is triggered by release of mediators. Rather than too few, there are a large number of mediators in the defense system.
Cells of the immune system:
The cells that are developed in the bone narrow mature and liberate into the blood stream. A few cells settle in the tissues and lympho reticular system to perform their immunological function. The cells in the blood are red blood cells (RBC) white blood cells (WBC) and platelets. Red cells supply oxygen to all the systems. White blood cells defend body from foreign stimuli and platelets help in clotting.
The WBC is further divided into Granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes. It is well known that granulocytes are further divided into polymorpho nuclear leucocytes, Eosinophils and Basophiles. Lymphocytes are divided into T cells, B cells and NK cells. Monocytes are referred to as monocytes in the blood and as macrophages and mast cells in the tissues.
Mediators are found in cells as well as in plasma. Mediators are classified into preformed mediators and newly synthesized mediators. Preformed mediators always exist even in the absence of the inflammatory stimuli. These are histamine, serotonin, lysosomal enzymes which are generated by the cellular sources mast cells, platelets, neutrophils, macrophages etc. The newly synthesized mediators, on the other hand, are formed in the presence of an inflammatory stimulus. These are prostaglandins, leucoterines, and platelet activating factors, cytokines, and nitric oxide etc., generated from cellular sources such as leucocytes, platelets endothelium and macrophages.
Under the influence of an inflammatory stimulus certain proteins in the plasma like complement under go chain reactions releasing intermediary substances like C3a, C5a and C5b – 9. C3a is an anaphylotoxin attracting histamine to the site, while C5a attracts neutrophils to the site. C5b – 9b, on the other hand, are believed to create MACs (membrane activating complexes) and cause target cells lysis (destruction). A plasma protein known as Hegeman factor, on the other hand, activates, clotting/ kinin cascades resulting in blood clotting and pain.
Immune response (IR):
The response initiated by an antigenic stimulus in the cells and mediators in a host is known as immune response. As is well documented IR can be divided in to two types such as the humoral (antibody mediated immunity (AMI)) and the cellular (cell mediated immunity (CMI)). AMI refers to interaction of antigens with antibodies present in the plasma and in the interstitial fluids (extracellular), resulting in neutralization. CMI refers to the direct killing (lysis) of intracellular bacteria through various cytokines secreted by T lymphocytes.
The current state of understanding regarding immunological reactions can be summarized as follows. Briefly the I Anaphylactic, II Cytolytic and III Immune complex reactions eventually generate TH2 (T Helper cell sub set 2). The latter generate the IL4 IL5 and IL10 (interleukin cytokines) which take part in allergic reactions, basic healing and also provide opposition to the TH1 subset. TH1 subset forms in delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction (type IV) and includes the cytokines IL2, TNF and IFN contributing to intracellular killing.
Two decades of clinical practice in curing various inflammatory diseases and the possible common link between these is summarized in Table 1. The latter clearly points out the administering of the medicine for a primary disease such as Asthma which was found to have a beneficial affect on Arthritis, and so on. Thus, a single medicine normally used in treatment of allergies had resulted in cure of several inflammatory diseases which are hitherto being treated separately. Animal experimentation at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) confirmed the anti inflammatory properties of the medicine.2 This necessitated a re-look in to the fundamentals of cells, mediators and immunological response. Literature and patent search revealed that in 1994 a US patent was granted to Yoshi et al from Japan.
Subsequently relief by the treatment has been observed in the following inflammatory diseases;
(a) Rheumatic diseases: Rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, Seronegative arthropathies, including reactive arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and various vasculitides.
(b) Nervous system: Paralysis (Cerebro vascular accident due to vasculitis), Encephalitis, Tuberculomas, multiple sclerosis, Epilepsy, peripheral neuritis, migraine, Guillian-Barr’e syndrome.
(c) Respiratory system: Bronchial asthma, TB, Drug resistant tuberculosis, and pulmonary mycotic conditions.
(d) Renal: Glomerulo nephritis, chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome.
(e) Genitourinary system: Chronic UTI, Stress incontinence, chronic leucorrhoea, and infertility.
(f) Heart: Hypertension, Rheumatic heart diseases, (also with CCF, Choria) Congestive cardiac failure, Atherosclerosis. Global hypokinesia.
(g) Skin: Chronic venous (Sephanous) ulcers, psoriasis, Lepraneuritis, and Vitiligo (Early Stage).
(h) Eye/ ENT: Iridocyclitis, Uveitis, Retinal detachment, Glucoma, Vasomotorrhnitis, Epistaxis, Allergy, Miners disease.
(i) Gastrointestinal diseases: Peptic ulcer, IBS, Ulcerative colitis.
(j) Psychiatric: Stress related syndromes. Dementias.
(k) Infectious diseases: Cerebral Malaria, Filariasis, Fungal infections and DIC.
(l) Pains: Cancer pains, chronic pains, few cancers arrested.
(m) Endocrine disorders: Thyroid, Diabetes.
COMMON LINK AMONG INFLAMMATORY DISEASES
Reorganization of cells
In the present methodology, the cells are reorganised into cells presenting antigens, cells required in processing antigens and intermediary cells, and, cells found at the site of inflammation. Of particular importance is the role played by intermediaries such as mast cells and basophiles. As will be seen later these are essential for release of histamine, and therefore, key agents for initiating and maintaining the inflammation. It is thus imperative that any control on mast cells should control the inflammatory diseases.
Mast cells4,5are bone marrow derived tissue resident cells, relatively large in diameter (10-15 mm) and heterogeneous in shape. Under optical microscope the mast cells reveal 50 to 200 densely packed granules in each cell, each granule in turn is bound to membrane. A typical granule of 0.1 to 0.4 mm contains relatively large amounts of histamine, heparin, TNF and other preformed inflammatory mediators. The surface of the each of the cells is coated with high affinity receptors ecoR1, which attracts IgE molecules on the surface of mast cells. Following the attachment of the IgE molecules on the mast cell surfaces, the granules start degranulating. Although mast cells are found in connective tissues through out the body, these are present in large numbers beneath the surface tissues such as skin, lung alveoli, gastrointestinal mucosa and nasal mucus membranes. Thus, mast cells are strategically positioned to interact with inhaled or ingested antigens.
Mechanism of Mediators:6
Histamine at the inflammatory site has a long life (30-60 mts), and, is stable as compared to most mediators derived from phospholipids and nitric oxide. As is well known histamine triggers all the mediators and vice versa. Therefore, in any physical injury such as trauma, cold or heat, the activation of already stored histamine from the mast cells is expected to play a dominant role.
Histamine receptors on lymphocytes:7,8,9
In the proposed protocol it has been postulated that histamine can trigger lymphocytes in releasing other mediators. This is possible only if there is histamine receptors present on the lymphocytes. This assumption has received a recent support from several researchers. Similarly, the action of T cells in the histamine homeostasis10 (self-regulating information feedback) is proposed to take place as illustrated in Fig. 1. An important point to note is that IL6, IL8 and TNF etc., present at the inflammatory site due to tissue injury are also capable of liberating histamine.
IgE B Cells:
The IL4 cytokine is expected to play a dominant role in sensitizing CD4 cells and through it the effector cells i.e. B cells and CD8 cells. Further, in a double pronged manner IL4 can directly sensitize an IgE B cell which in turn releases IgE and acts on mast cells to liberate histamine. The latter in turn goes to the inflammatory site and causes healing through TH2 type of reaction. In case the inflammation is larger, it may turn in to chronic due to liberation of cytokines IL4 IL6 TNF etc.11 These in turn, in a positive feed back cycle, trigger histamine release and aid in maintaining chronic inflammation. This vicious cycle of generation of histamine at the site of injury and its subsequent triggering of IgE B cells ( Histamine pathway II) and CD4 cells ( Histamine pathway I) is termed as Rao’s Vicious cycle. That is strong inflammation can turn into chronic inflammation by the continuous generation of excess histamine in repeated positive feed back cycles. Micro organisms may be exploiting this phenomenon in producing chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases.
Rao’s Vicious Cycle and it’s interaction with three immunological pathways
As is well known, any immunological reaction operates through three different path ways as shown in Fig.2. The path way 1 is known as IgE / mast cell / mediator path way can be sub divided to reflect physiological and pathological conditions as path 1a and path 1b respectively. It can be noticed that in all the physiological conditions histamine is liberated and together with TH2 affect the cure. The pathological conditions of inflammation on the other hand may turn in to chronic inflammation due to the excessive generation of histamine in a cyclic manner as explained earlier by Rao’s vicious cycle.
Fig. 2 depicts the details of physiological and pathological path ways. The difference between the 3 path ways is in the sources of histamine and also in the intermediaries.
Evidently, the histamine at the inflammatory site together with TH2 cures the inflammation. Thus, histamine physiologically plays a role as type of switch for TH1 or TH2.
IgE/mast cell/mediator path way12 (Fig. 3a) depicts the physiological path way which sets TH2 type of reaction after an allergic inflammation, there by affecting cure. Fig. 3b depicts pathological path way where in the presence of local cytokines IL4, IL6, INF etc., at the inflammatory site trigger the release of excess histamine over and above that required for maintaining histamine homeostasis. This in turn triggers IgE B cells and in a cyclic manner contributes to release of more histamine making the inflammation chronic. This in brief is the Rao’s vicious cycle proposed to be applicable for chronic inflammatory conditions.
The IgG, IgM/Complement/neutrophil pathway as shown in Fig. 4, includes the pathological path 2b. Typically IgG / IgM immune complex interacts with complement, which releases C3a and C5a and bring histamine and neutrophilis into the site. The presence of IL4, IL6, IL8 etc. at the inflammatory site trigger histamine and in turn the Rao’s Vicious Cycle. The TH2 type of reaction, although, helps in healing process in physiological (2a) inflammation through the parenchymal cells, the excess of TH2 found in pathological inflammations can cause over healing, resulting in scaring and stiffening.
In the physiological path way 3a as shown in Fig. 5, theCD8 cells kill the intracellular organisms by TH1 type of reaction, and, the TH2 type of reaction set by histamine heals
through parenchymal cells. Pathological path 3b (T lymphocyte / lymphokine pathway) directly kills the intracellular organisms by TH1 reaction through the cytokines liberated by CD8 cells. However, the TH2 cytokines liberated from IgE B cells and the associated excess histamine through Rao’s Vicious cycle contribute to the chronic nature of inflammation. Thus, in spite of the killing of intracellular organism (TH1 action) the inflammation continues (by TH2 action which opposes TH1). The pain13, stress, and cancer cytokines are also the same as those that cause inflammation and, so can trigger Rao’s Vicious cycle.
Appa Hista refers to the proposed method of curing inflammation using anti- histamine antibodies while exploiting the fundamental phenomena of Rao’s Vicious cycle. It is by now clear that the histamine homeostasis in the body is disturbed during inflammation. Antigen administered in the physiological condition of inflammation reacts with IgE B cells generating the IgE and in turn through TH2 type of reactions affecting the cure. More serious is the pathological condition leading to chronic inflammation. Rao’s vicious cycle plays a major role in generating and maintaining histamine levels above those required for histamine homeostasis. It is interesting to note that the generation of excess histamine is found in acute and chronic inflammation. The cure therefore is to see that antibodies are generated to combat against histamine. In Appa Hista method, histamine conjugated normal human immunoglobulin is intramuscularly injected. It works like a vaccine. This most likely reaches all the lymph nodes and stimulates B cells to produce IgG antihistamine antibodies (also referred to as Appa Hista). The antibodies in turn reach the inflammatory site and neutralize the histamine i.e. it breaks the Rao’s vicious cycle, either directly or enhance the histamine binding ability of the plasma. The histamine binding/ diluting ability is as high as 30 times in normal individuals as compared to that of suffering from allergic inflammation in normal individuals.14
Appa Hista’s main advantage is that it neither interferes in primary histamine release nor causes any immuno suppression. During the past two decades of clinical practice, the author had cured couple of hundreds of patients of both sexes with age groups ranging from 10 to 60 years. The relief from inflammatory diseases found in most cases range from good to excellent (patent application status). The intensity of the disease is found to be reduced on the administration of the medicine along with the gradual increase in the time periods at which the medicine has to be re-administered. This may takes 3 weeks to 3 months depending up on the intensity of symptom. An interesting feature is that the patients felt totally comfortable during in between drug administration periods along with a general feeling of well being, which was not the case with steroids or any other drugs.
There are no side effects observed in the Appa Hista method of cure and applications. It is however found that the method is not very effective in the case of smokers, and alcoholics. From an economic view point the treatment is inexpensive as compared to current day methods used. Also, the drug, which is already bio-assayed and available in the market for last 30 years can be easily procured and administered.
A link is observed among the inflammatory diseases and it is identified as Rao’s vicious cycle. Histamine is present in human body in levels corresponding to that required to maintain histamine homeostasis. During inflammation, histamine is released at the- inflammatory sites as predicted by Rao’s vicious cycle. The later refers to the proliferation of TH2 type of reaction and its dominance over TH1 reaction. In the Appa Hista method of cure, antihistamine antibodies combat the histamine at the inflammatory sites and also block TH2 type of reaction, thus indirectly helping the TH1 type of reaction. The dual effect of Appa hista antibodies can be visualized in:
1) killing the intracellular organisms through TH1 type of reaction, and,
2) neutralizing the histamine at inflammation site at the same time blocking the excess TH2 type of reaction.
Since Appa Hista directly attacks histamine where ever it is present, can cure all inflammatory diseases.
1) Espinoza, L. R. & Cuellar, M. L. Molecular Pathogenic Mechanisms of Spondyloarthropathies: (Medical Intelligence Unit). Publisher: (Springer, Berlin, Germany), 125 pp (1995).
2) Dr. Appa Rao Peddapalli. Use of Histamine Conjugated Normal Human Immunoglobulin for treatment of all types of pain and inflammation, Indian Patent Application: 3165/DEL/98, (1998).
3) 3) Dr. Appa Rao Peddapalli. Use of Histamine Conjugated Normal Human Immunoglobulin for treatment of all types of pain and inflammation, Indian Patent Application: 1301/DEL/2002, Dec 26th, (2002).
4) 3) Yoshii Haruo, Fukata & Yuriko. Immunomodulating and antiinflammatory agent. United States Patent 5,780,026 July 14, (1998).
5) Valent, P.; et al. Variable expression of activation-linked surface antigens on human mast cells in health and disease. Immunological Reviews, 179, 74-81 (2001).
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8) Schneider, Elke; Rolli-Derkinderen, Malvyne; Arock, Michel & Dy, Michel. Trends in histamine research: new functions during immune responses and hematopoiesis. Trends in Immunology, 23(5), 255-263 (2002)
9) Coge, Francis; et al. Genomic organization and characterization of splice variants of the human histamine H3 receptor. Biochemical Journal, 355(2), 279-288 (2001).
10) Mannaioni, P. F.; Fantozzi, R.; Giannella, E.; Masini, E. & Dep., Preclin. Pathophysiological significance of the distribution of histamine receptor sub-types: a proposed dual role for histamine in inflammation and type I hypersensitivity reactions. Univ. Florence, Florence, Italy. 24(1-2), 26-34 (1988).
11) Lichtenstein, L. M. & Osler, A. G. Studies on the mechanisms of hypersensitivity phenomena. ix histamine release from human leukocytes by ragweed pollen antigen. Journal of Experimental Medicine. 120, 507-30 (1964).
12) De Rossi, Marco; Bernasconi, Pia; Baggi, Fulvio; De Waal Malefyt, Rene & Mantegazza, Renato. Cytokines and chemokines are both expressed by human myoblasts: possible relevance for the immune pathogenesis of muscle inflammation. International Immunology, 12(9), 1329-1335 (2000).
13) Schwarz, M.; Sunder-Plassmann R.; Cerwenka A.; Pickl, W. F. & Holter, W.Regulation of cytokine production by human T-lymphocytes in allergic immune response. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, General Review, 105(23), 672-6 (1993).
14) Dickenson, A. & Besson, J.M. The Pharmacology of Pain. Handbook, Exp. Pharmacol., Publisher: (Springer, Berlin, Germany.) 130, 479pp (1997).
15) Kokai Tokkyo Koho. Nippon Zoki Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. Japan, Allergy treatment. Japanese Patent, Application: JP 78-162375 19781223,6 pp (1980).
For the complete paper please email us or klick on this link
Name: Prof Dr. Appa Rao Peddapalli, MBBS, MD
Academic achivements: Developed Appa Hista method of treatment, Prostulated Rao’s Vicious cycle for Histamine
Academic affiliations: Academic advisor, IMMA-LABS
Institute of Medical Microbiology and Autoimmune Diseases
Andhra Pradesh, India 530002
Scientific advisor to : DiponEd BioIntelligence LLP, India
Posted under Miscellaneous Content
This post was written by editor on May 24, 2011
Individuals all over the world want more information on stretch marks removal, but do not know where to go to find it. When talking about eliminating these unsightly lines, you may first want answers to your question of, “Is there any way that I can get rid of stretch marks?” You should first find out the causes of stretch marks and then investigate what are the options you could choose from.
How Are Stretch Marks Caused?
Stretch marks form when the skin extends more than it is capable. Small tears start forming in the collagen level beneath the outer skin layer. This causes silvery lines that can be found hips, breasts, thighs and stomach. Some of the causes of stretch marks are genetic factors as well as weight gain or pregnancy. It is only a rare few are fortunate enough to be unaffected by stretch marks. When it comes down to removal of stretch marks, there are a few choices to avail of.
Preventing Stretch Marks with an Anti Stretch Mark Cream Application
One of the best treatment options is to prevent the formation of stretch marks in the beginning. anti stretch mark cream increases the level of collagen in the skin thus increasing its elasticity. A doctor will usually tell a pregnant women to start using a good collagen based cream sometime around the 1st trimester of the pregnancy with the aim of decreasing the formation of these undesirable marks. These collagen creams work by significantly lessening the intensity of the marks as well as the amount of stretch marks.
Stretch Mark Treatments: Knowing What Your Options Are
There are various treatments designed to remove stretch marks that are being marketed these days. Many people resort to laser surgery but it is certainly an expensive option. It can also be very painful and may need anesthesia. Another disadvantage is that it necessitates multiple follow up visits and can take months before the treatment can end.
Retina-A treatments have shown some results as well. The drawback is, this treatment can only be gotten if you have a doctor’s prescription. What’s more, this treatment is costly and can take too many months to see significant results, if at all.
Microderm Abrasion is considered one of the treatments that are effective for stretch marks. The downside to this is with microderm abrasion is that it can often result in additional scarring of the skin. It is also one of the treatments for stretch marks that involves several follow up treatments.
These days you will also find best stretch mark cream that offer very promising results when applied regularly. These creams are made up with collagen in addition to other ingredients that help decrease those ugly stretch marks by firming and strengthening the cells of the skin. Some of these stretch mark creams have been proven very effective without taking up as much time or money as compared to other treatments.
Exploring your Available Options for Stretch Mark Removal
These days you will also find special remover treatments for stretch marks that help decrease the appearance of these dreaded lines. It is important to ensure that you explore all the facts with regards to the different plans of treatment available. Find out all details regarding the expenses involves, how painful the treatment is and number of visits that will be required. As always, prevention is best but sometimes that is just not an option. Women around the world have found that a stretch mark remover cream is most effective.
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This post was written by assistant on May 21, 2011